Why The Geneva Convention Is An Important Global Agreement

The development of the Geneva Conventions was closely linked to the Red Cross, whose founder Henri Dunant initiated international negotiations which, in 1864, helped to relieve the wounded in times of war. This Convention (1) provided for immunity from capture and destruction of all facilities for the treatment of wounded and ill soldiers and their personnel, (2) impartial reception and treatment of all combatants, (3) the protection of civilians providing assistance to the wounded, and (4) recognition of the Red Cross symbol as a means of identifying persons and equipment covered by the Agreement. The Geneva Conventions are rules that apply only in times of armed conflict and are intended to protect those who do not participate or no longer participate in hostilities; These include sick and wounded armed men in the fields, the wounded, the sick and shipwrecked of the armed forces at sea, prisoners of war and civilians. The first convention was entrusted to the treatment of wounded and sick armed forces in the field. [21] The Second Convention dealt with the sick, wounded and shipwrecked of the armed forces at sea. [22] [23] The third convention dealt with the treatment of prisoners of war in times of conflict. [24] The Fourth Convention dealt with the treatment and protection of civilians during the war. [25] As some opponents of the war had abused the principles contained in previous conventions during the Second World War, an International Red Cross conference in Stockholm in 1948 extended and codified the existing provisions. The Conference developed four conventions, adopted in Geneva on 12 August 1949: (1) the Convention for the Improvement of the Wounded and Sick in the Armed Forces on the Ground; (2) the Convention for the Improvement of the Injured, Sick and Shipwrecked at Sea; (3) the Convention on the Treatment of Prisoners of War and (4) the Convention on the Protection of Civilians in Wartime. The 1949 conventions were amended by three amendment protocols: the 1929 conference resulted in two conventions signed on July 27, 1929. One, the “Convention for the Improvement of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in the Army on the Ground,” was the third version that replaced the original 1864 convention. [9] The other was accepted after the experience of the First World War highlighted deficiencies in the protection of prisoners of war under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The “Convention on the Treatment of Prisoners of War” was not intended to replace these earlier conventions signed in The Hague, but to complement them.

[13] [14] Although you played an important role in the progress of the International Committee of the Red Cross, continued its work as a fighter for war wounded and prisoners of war, and you were awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize, Dunant lived and died in near poverty. In October 1863, delegates from 16 countries went to Geneva with military medicine to discuss the terms of a humanitarian agreement during the war. This meeting and its resulting treaty, signed by 12 nations, became the first Geneva Convention. The 1864 Convention was ratified in three years by all major European powers as well as by many other states. It was amended and extended in 1906 by the Second Geneva Convention, and its provisions were applied to the command of maritime warfare by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The Third Geneva Convention, the Convention on the Treatment of Poe wars (1929), required prisoners of war to treat prisoners of war humanely, provide information about them and authorize official visits by representatives of neutral states to detention camps.

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